New PDF release: A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of

By Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1402043597

ISBN-13: 9781402043598

ISBN-10: 1402043600

ISBN-13: 9781402043604

Shortly after its inauguration in 1985 the Birla technological know-how Centre, Hyderabad, India, all started a sequence of lectures via Nobel Laureates and different scientists of overseas renown, often in Physics and Astronomy, occasionally in existence Sciences and Chemistry.

The current assortment usually contains lectures on frontier subject matters. The transcript of every lecture is preceded through a quick biography of the Nobel Laureate/Scientist in question.

The lectures are geared toward, and available to a large non-specialist yet better expert audience.

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Additional info for A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century

Example text

Various schemes have been considered for replacing the Klystrons by something else. In fact, each Klystron is an electron tube, containing a low-energy, high-intensity electron beam. It would seem to be more practical (and it is at the basis of CERN’s design for such a machine) to replace all Klystrons by a single low-energy, high-intensity electron beam running in parallel with the main linac. The high-frequency power can then be made by bunching this “drive beam” at the 30 GHz frequency and letting it pass through structures similar to those of the main linac (Fig.

So far, we have been able to meet it, but it becomes more difficult as the energy increases. 3 Electron vs Proton Machines Most high-energy accelerators accelerate protons. Now protons, as we have recently found, are composite particles; they consist of three quarks, bound together by the “force particles” called gluons. As a result collisions involving protons tend to be complicated affairs; we are really interested in quark-quark collisions, but in most of the proton-proton collisions the quarks do not score The Long-Term Future of Particle Accelerators 33 a direct hit on each other.

Each section is a cylindrical 38 Simon van der Meer Fig. 7. Typical linac structure. Each section consists of gaps as in Fig. 1, powered by a high-frequency tube (Klystron). After the passage of the particles, the remaining electromagnetic energy is dissipated in the termination tube, with so-called “irises”: transverse diaphragms with a central hole through which the beam passes. The fields set up in this structure have the general shape shown in Fig. 2. The structure is “filled” with field by connecting one side of it to a high-frequency power source (transmitting tube, or “Klystron”).

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A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century by Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.)

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