Download PDF by Alan Timberlake: A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)

By Alan Timberlake

ISBN-10: 0511164467

ISBN-13: 9780511164460

This textbook describes and systematizes all elements of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, notice order, and intonation. it really is particularly serious about the that means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the middle thought is that of the predicate heritage (a checklist of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the e-book offers an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and point. it's going to entice scholars, students and language pros attracted to Russian.

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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)

Example text

To review the essentials of acoustic phonetics, the irregular shape of the vocal tract leads to a myriad of harmonics of the fundamental frequency, F0 . The harmonics tend to cluster within recognizable bands, or formants, measured at their centers in cycles per second, or Hertz (= Hz). The first formant (clustering of harmonics), or F1 , is proportional to aperture. Thus [ƒ], the vowel produced with the widest aperture and lowest position of the tongue, has the highest value of F1 , as high as 800 or 900 Hz, while [í ˝!

In e-mail communication with Russians (in the format of plain text in a Latin alphabet), there is no standardized procedure. Not uncommon is a strategy like that of computerized corpora, in which the unusual Cyrillic consonant letters are spelled with digraphs with ≤h≥ as in most transliteration systems, while ≤j≥ is used for ≤q≥ and as the operational graph in vowel letters, for example ≤z≥ becomes ≤ja≥. Some Russians use ≤je≥ for ≤t≥ after vowels. The various systems for Romanizing Cyrillic are similar and about equally adequate.

Vowels of series {a} show variation between two variants, [ ] and [ï]. The older pronunciation was [S‹o εï ], later [S‹o ïε ], now [ï]. Throughout the nineteenth century up until the beginning of the twentieth century, [S‹o εï ], later [Sï‹ ε ], was used in native words. Both variants occurred in borrowings, with a stylistic difference: [ ], which was closer to the pronunciation of the (often French) sources, was a mark of “spoken language of good society,”26 in contradistinction to the pronunciation that fit the native Russian pattern, with [S‹o εï ]/[S‹o ïε ].

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A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake

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