By Pierre Van Der Eng
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Extra resources for Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880
A. Defined for 1895-1905 as landholders with cattle for ploughing. b. Defined for 1895-1905 as landholders without cattle for ploughing. c. Most of them may have been family workers. Sources: Koloniaal Verslag; W. W. Meijer Ranneft (1926), Onderzoek naar den Belastingdruk op de Inlandsche Bevolking (Jakarta: Landsdrukkerij) p. 198. The population censuses provide more consistent information on labour supply in Indonesia as a whole. 6 shows that the share of agriculture in employment fell continuously, largely in favour of the services sector.
Its contribution was negative to the decline of total production in Java from 1937-60, which implies that the fall in domestic demand explains most of the stagnation during those years. Moreover, increasing domestic demand explains 95 per cent of agricultural growth in Java during the whole period 1920-88. This clearly implies that agricultural change cannot be interpreted as a mere function of foreign trade throughout the period under observation, but should to an important extent be regarded as a function of population growth and changing average income.
3 Note: Annual average growth rates calculated from five-year averages, of which the first year is given. a. 5 percent growth of Indonesian population before 1930. Sources: Appendices 1 and 3. 20 Agricultural Growth in Indonesia production in both Java and the Other Islands was the same during the colonial era (1880-1937) and after (1937-88), which is largely due to the fact that rapid growth in the 1970s and 1980s compensated general economic stagnation during 1942-67. 4 verifies that the production patterns in both regions changed considerably over time.
Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880 by Pierre Van Der Eng