By William C. Lyons
Be ready for drilling's most well liked development
in line with the U.S. division of strength, by way of 2005, 30% of all wells might be drilled utilizing gasoline and air. The Air and fuel Drilling guide, through William Lyons -- an across the world identified professional and holder of 9 drilling patents -- lays out every thing you must observe air and gasoline drilling to every kind of operations, from the main uncomplicated to the main complicated, and for the shallowest to the inner most. You’re proven tips to:
grasp the air and gasoline drilling options in very important industries: development and improvement of water wells, tracking wells, geotechnical boreholes, mining operations boreholes, and extra
Calculate volumetric movement and compressor requisites.
Drill with reliable foam, volatile foam, and aerated beverages (as good as gasoline and air)
deal with the specific concerns of deep gap drilling
practice direct and reverse-flow circulate calculations
Specify drills, collars, and casings
Engineer and function really good downhole tasks
Plan operations and select air package deal contractors
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Additional info for Air and Gas Drilling Manual
The kinetic energy per unit volume, KE, is [1, 10] 1 ρ V2 2 KE = (1-1) 3 where KE is the kinetic energy per unit volume (ft-lb/ft ), ρ is the specific weight of the fluid (lb-sec2/ft4), V is the average velocity of the fluid (ft/sec). 2 ft/sec ). For the mud drilling example the specific weight of the drilling mud in the 3 annulus just above the drill collars is 75 lb/ft . 0 ft/sec. 5 ft − lb ft 3 Figure 1-22: Annulus velocities for drilling mud and compressed air. 688 lb/ft . 0214 lb − sec 2 ft 4 The average velocity at this position is approximately 30 ft/sec.
The pressures in Figure 1-16 reflects the hydrostatic weight of the column of drilling mud and the resistance to fluid flow from the inside surfaces of the drill Chapter 1: Introduction 1-17 string and the surfaces of the annulus. This resistance to flow results in pressure losses due to friction. The total losses due to friction are the sum of pipe wall, openhole wall, and drill bit orifice resistance to flow. This mud drilling example shows a drilling string design which has a open orifice or large diameter nozzle openings in the drill bit.
It is assumed that the drilling mud is circulated into the top of the drill string at 60˚F. Figure 1-18: Mud drilling temperature versus depth. As the drilling mud flows down the inside of the drill string the drilling mud heats up as heat flows from the higher temperature rock formations and drilling mud in the annulus. At the bottom of the well the drilling mud temperature reaches the bottomhole temperature of 160˚F. The drilling mud flowing up the annulus (usually laminar flow conditions) is heated by the geothermal heat in the rock formation.
Air and Gas Drilling Manual by William C. Lyons